Chapter: The Nine Situations



Sun Tzu said: The art of war recognizes nine varieties of ground: (1) Dispersive ground; (2) facile ground; (3) contentious ground; (4) open ground; (5) ground of intersecting highways; (6) serious ground; (7) difficult ground; (8) hemmed-in ground; (9) desperate ground.


There are nine types of ground as described below. Note that these are in addition to the six kinds of terrain, although the types of ground described are often rather similar.

See the next part for basic strategies to use on each of the nine types of ground.