10.31

Chapter: Terrain 10.31
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Translation:

Hence the saying: If you know the enemy and know yourself, your victory will not stand in doubt; if you know Heaven and know Earth, you may make your victory complete.

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Commentary

Know your readiness, the enemy’s readiness and the terrain, and you will know much that will determine victory and the tactics you should use.

‘Heaven’ implies factors such as the weather and spirit. ‘Earth’ is the more tangible terrain. Both and everything between should be considered.