Chapter: Terrain



When the higher officers are angry and insubordinate, and on meeting the enemy give battle on their own account from a feeling of resentment, before the commander-in-chief can tell whether or no he is in a position to fight, the result is ruin.


Armies succeed through coordinated command and action. When individual commanders do not respect the general, when they reject higher orders, or when they act on their own initiative without coordination, then the whole mission is in danger.

This effect appears in business where individual business departments and units act as independent ‘silos’, seeking individual success, often at the expense of other internal groups. With this wasteful inner division, customers and shareholders lose out.